If you ever played with a toy car, then you know it moves well in a straight line but it doesn’t take a turn. This is because it doesn’t have a differential. But, your vehicle makes turns on corners, whether it’s front, rare, four, or all-wheel-drive.
A differential is defined as a gear train, which consists of three gears that feature the rotational speed of one shaft is the average speed of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.
The differential is a set of gears that transfers engine torque to the wheels. It takes power from the engine and delivers it, allowing each wheel to rotate at a different speed on turns.
Vehicles such as chariots, wagons, and carriages still suffer from wheel slipping and dragging, resulting in damage to the wheels, axles, and roads. To prevent this from happening, a differential was invented.
Why Is Differential Needed?
The differential allows the steering wheels to turn at different speeds so the car can take turns without putting much pressure on tires. The inside wheels move in a short distance compared to the outer wheels.
If the axle does not allow the wheels to spin freely, the wheel of the tire will drag on the ground. Hence this is essential when the vehicle turns, causing the wheel to move outside the turning curve to roll further and faster than the other.
Parts of Differential:
Differential side gear or sun gears
Pinion shaft or cross pin
Axle shafts or half shafts
Ring gear or crown wheel
Drive pinion or bevel pinion
Differential pinions or planet gears
Differential case or Housing
Types of Differential:
Mechanical limited-slip differential
Viscous limited-slip differential